A history of Western civilization from its origins in Greece and Rome through the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Reformation, and the age of discovery and expansion during the emergence of modern Europe. Usually offered in the summer session.
Covers the development of the Western world from the Thirty Years' War to the post-World War II era: the age of absolutism, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, industrialization and the wars of the 20th century. Usually offered in the summer session.
A survey of American history from its beginning to the end of the Civil War, giving special emphasis to the events, people, and ideas that have made America a distinctive civilization. Open to freshmen.
A survey of American history from the Civil War to the present, giving special emphasis to the events, people, and ideas that have made America a distinctive civilization. Open to freshmen.
Honors sections of HY 101.
Honors sections of HY 102.
An honors-level approach to the American experience; parallel to HY 203.
An honors-level approach to the American experience.
Formation of the largely Spanish speaking New World, from the shock of conquest to the trials of freedom that spawned the modern nations of Latin America.
Survey of political, economic, and social life in the 19th and 20th centuries with emphasis on the larger countries (Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina).
Broad survey of Asian civilization from the earliest times covering India, China, Korea, Japan and Southeast Asian, with large cultural and religious emphases.
Conditions of various Asian civilizations in the 15th century, followed by the arrival of Europeans, with emphasis on imperialism, colonialism and Asian nationalism.
This course will explore the origins and evolution of science and technology and the relationship both had to the societies that produced them. In addition to reading foundational texts in the history of science, like Aristotle and Galileo, we will address larger themes, including the relationship between science and religion and the role of science and scientists in the societies that produced them.
Science and technology are ever-present in today’s world, defining not only how we live our daily lives but also shaping our conceptions and evaluations of modernity, civilization, and progress. How did science and technology become so important and pervasive to the modern world? This course is intended as an introduction to the history of modern science and technology from the Enlightenment to the present. Our focus will be on the development of science and technology in the Western World (Europe and North America). However, we will also make comparisons across cultures to explore how science and technology shaped notions of what counts as “Western” and “modern.” In addition to learning about key developments in the history of science and technology, from Ford’s Model-T to Einstein’s theory of relativity, we will address larger themes, including the relationship between science and religion and the role of technology in war and empire.
This course examines the political, economic, religious and social history of the world from the first civilizations that emerged around 3000 BC to about the year AD 1500. In this course we will discuss the creation of civilizations, the rise and fall of empires, and the similarities and differences between these various cultures with regard to their development. As this is an introductory course to world history, it is important to note that we will not be able to delve too deeply into any one topic.
This course is a continuation of HY 117, Comparative World Civilizations. The course will examine the interactions between major world civilizations in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Course material will examine developments of history, politics, economics, and religion since 1500.
State history under the flags of Spain, France, Great Britain, the U.S., and the Confederate States, with emphasis on cultural heritage.
Survey of Alabama's history and personalities since 1865: Reconstruction, agrarian revolt, Progressivism, the KKK, Dixiecrats and the Civil Rights movement.
Survey of the Christian church from its origins in the Middle East through its victory over the Roman Empire and its ascendancy in the Middle Ages.
History of Western civilization in one country, from Anglo-Saxon times to the growth of absolutism and resistance.
England from the Glorious Revolution to the post-World War II era, with emphasis on social and cultural topics as well as foreign affairs.
Traces the development of the U.S. Navy from sailing ships to nuclear vessels, and relates it to political and economic conditions and to wars throughout American history.
Special studies in history. May be repeated for a maximum of 18 hours.
Directed study done by special arrangement with a faculty member of the History Department. Requires sophomore standing and permission of the instructor.
This course covers a range of special topics in European History. Typically taught as a combination of lecture and discussion, with emphasis on primary sources, its topics cover major themes in medieval, early-modern, and modern European civilization. These include, among others, the origins of medieval and early modern Europe, national and cultural identity, revolution, gender, sexuality, consumerism, daily life, war, transnational exchange, and the environment.
This course covers a range of special topics in American History. Typically taught as a combination of lecture and discussion, with emphasis on primary sources, its topics will include, among others, the indigenous and European encounters, colonial and constitutional history, the development of the American nation, race, slavery, and civil war, the World Wars and the Cold War, American foreign policy, and the civil rights movement.
This course covers a range of special topics in Latin American, Asian, Middle Eastern or African History. Typically taught as a combination of lecture and discussion, with emphasis on primary sources, its topics include, among others, national and cultural identity, revolution, gender, sexuality, consumerism, daily life, war, transnational exchange, and environment.
History of the social, cultural, and political interactions of all the peoples in early North America and the Caribbean from the sixteenth century through the 1760s, with an emphasis on the diversity of experiences across categories of race, gender, socioeconomic status, religion, and age.
The South from colonial times to the Civil War, tracing the growth of the plantation system, extension of the frontier, commerce and industry, cultural influences, and the institution of slavery.
History of the South since 1865, covering Reconstruction, the Bourbon Democracy, the New South Creed, populist revolt, World War I, the 1920s, the Great Depression, the civil rights movement, and Southern politics.
American history from 1815 to 1861, giving special emphasis to the development of a distinctive American culture and the factors within that culture that led to the Civil War.
The military, political, diplomatic, social, and intellectual aspects of the Civil War years, and the impact of the war on subsequent American history.
The life and legend of the man often considered to be the representative American.
Topical survey of the economic, social, political, and cultural developments in the United States since World War II.
Role of black Americans in American life from the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century, with emphasis on the institutions and events of the 1800s.
The interrelationship of blacks and the industrial-urban environment of the United States.
Deals with the evolution of constitutional law and the nature and process of judicial review, including 18th-century constitutional theory and Supreme Court decisions.
Continuation of HY 323, tracing developments up to the current Supreme Court.
Emphasizes idealism and realism in foreign policy, the change from isolationism to international involvement, "New Manifest Destiny," and the rise of America to world power.
Emphasizes American international involvement through the Panama Canal, the Roosevelt Corollary, World War I and the League of Nations, Pearl Harbor and World War II, the Cold War, Vietnam War, and after.
Examines the history of women in early North America from 1660 to 1877.
History of the leaders, organizations, and events of the Civil Rights Movement during the years 1945 to 1968.
Course Description: This course in History and African American Studies surveys the interaction of religion and civil rights during mid-twentieth century America. While national in scope, it will pay special attention to the place of Alabama and particularly Tuscaloosa. The guiding question for the course will be what difference religion make – or did not make – in the development of the civil rights movement.
This course examines the histories of hundreds of indigenous peoples in North America from early human habitation to the present day, with a focus on those residing in what is now the United States and Canada. We will study their experiences; their encounters with one another, Europeans, and Africans; and the different histories that people have told about those experiences and encounters. Class materials, which include art, film, and fiction as well as history and anthropology, stress the diversity of Native lifeways as well as the ways in which the history of American Indians has often been ignored, changed, appropriated, and distorted, as well as reclaimed and re-evaluated over time. Some of the questions we will consider throughout the semester include: How much can we know about Indigenous peoples before they had an alphabetic written history? What can European sources teach us about the Native peoples they encountered? How did the Natives of North America live before 1492? Does it make any sense to generalize about “Indians,” given that they include a large number of diverse peoples? How did contact with Europeans and Africans (and their diseases and technologies) change Native societies? How did Natives affect Europeans and Africans? Why did Native peoples lose ground (literally and figuratively) in the nineteenth century? How have Natives experienced and reacted to the changes of the twentieth century? What does it mean to be a Native person in the United States today?.
There have only been a handful of times in our nation’s history that can rightly be described as transformative. These have been eras in which, as Doris Kearns Goodwin rightly says, “a molt seems to take place, and an altered country begins to emerge.” In this context, we readily recall the American Revolution and the Civil War, but we may easily overlook the Progressive Era. To do so is a mistake that this course seeks to correct. For this was when the United States came of age as a world power, and also when Americans nationwide acquired a dynamic sense of their national identity. In vigorous and distinctive ways, Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson reshaped America and left their distinctive imprints on our national character. Their joint legacy, rightly or wrongly, was to use the power of the national government to enlarge the scope of American democracy. The Progressive Era itself ended dismally in race riots, a frenzied Red Scare, and the inept presidency of Warren Harding, but the progressive spirit would continue to smolder and occasionally spark fires of idealism and renewed efforts to conquer new frontiers to the present day.
Consider our ability to walk into a store and buy something already made off the rack. Or baseball, the All American sport. Or living in an apartment house beside people who are very different from us. What do these three things have in common? The answer is this: they can get us on our way to talking about the beginnings of city life in the United States during the nineteenth century. This course will explore the emergence of urban life in this country by exploring several issues, among them race, class, gender, culture, labor and geography.
Knitting has enjoyed a huge comeback in the U.S. in the last decade, largely thanks to interest in DIY and environmentally sustainable consumption. This class explores the history, art, and politics of knitting. Students will learn to knit (or develop their skills as knitters) and also analyze knitting as a fascinating window onto the rest of the world. Topics explored include the craft’s history, women’s and men’s work, the politics of art vs. craft, consumerism, globalization, and the craft’s role in activism. Half of class time will be studio-based and half will focus on discussion of the readings. There are no prerequisites. You will also develop the ability to think historically through critical analysis of primary and secondary sources; place events, people, and documents in their historical contexts; and create your own historical interpretations and narratives about the past. In this course, you should expect to do much more than memorize facts or dates -- you will be busy actively learning by knitting and doing history, not passively sitting back and being told what to think.
This course places the experiences of people with disabilities at the center of the American story, from long before Europeans arrived in North America through today. We will explore the changing lives of people with disabilities—from railroad workers and rights activists to wheelchair athletes and participants in freak shows to college students and more—as well as the history of disability policy and conceptions of disability. We will focus on the social and cultural history of disability rather than its strictly physical or medical aspects. U.S. Disability History takes a new approach to familiar topics in U.S. history, including colonization, slavery, immigration, racial and gender stereotypes, education, civil rights, and citizenship, among others.
Survey of the historical background of the conflict in Indochina leading to U.S. involvement and its consequences.
Race and Science examines the diverse interactions between science and race from the 18th century to the present era of human genomics. The class looks both at the scientific study of race and the impact of racial concepts on science. These interactions have given us: Nazi medicine, American eugenics, the Tuskegee experiments, and “race specific” contemporary pharmaceuticals. By the end of this course, students will have the opportunity to write (with consultation) a publishable-quality essay on one aspect of this important issue in history and bioscience ethics.
The history of medicine is the history of disease. Plague, bloody flux, yellow fever, the flu, cholera, ebola, smallpox, AIDS — at one time or another, each of these terms inspired terror. They’ve entered our otherwise flourishing civilizations and, like a wildfire, cut down men, women, children, rich, poor, religious, non-believers, even the healers themselves. Like phantoms, they disappeared as fast as they came; but once introduced to these mysterious visitors, no society remained unchanged. In this history of medicine, we examine six major epidemics over the last three thousand years. We’ll then turn to three epidemics of the present: cancer, healthcare-associated infections, and bioterrorism. How have humans responded to these threats? How has medicine adapted, if it has? What are our triumphs and when have we been unable to stop our invisible adversaries?.
This course examines major trends in the social, cultural, economic and political history of modern France. Major themes include: republicanism and citizenship, nationalism, daily life, war, class conflict, consumerism, imperalism, the arts and gender.
No description available.
The war to end all wars," from the European crises culminating at Sarajevo in 1914 to peacemaking at Versailles in 1919, with emphasis on the western and eastern fronts and on the war at sea.
The global conflict, or series of conflicts, from Manchukuo in 1931 to Tokyo Bay in 1945, with emphasis on battles on land and sea and in the air, life on the home fronts and in enemy-occupied areas, and the legacy of the war to future generations. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
Political history of Russia from the ninth to the 19th centuries, followed by social and cultural history of the Russian revolutionary movement.
Crisis in Russian society and the coming of the Revolution; the emergence of Stalinism; and political developments since World War II, including the disintegration of the Soviet system.
This course explores the evolution of modern Europe's consumer society from the 18th century to the present to understand how changing patterns of consumption fostered new relationships between individuals and the material world.
Conquistadors! Planters! Pirates! Indians! Enslaved Africans! Religious Reformers! Independence Leaders! Radical Revolutionaries! Together these people built a new world – a world forged at the intersection of imperial ambitions and international contact, where the peoples and cultures of the Americas, Africa, and Europe collided. This class examines how colonialism, plantation slavery, the age of abolition, and the emergence of national independence movements made the modern Caribbean.
In what ways did the Atlantic Ocean resemble an early-modern super-highway, moving people, ideas, and products across its waters? How did the individuals who shaped this world – rebellious slaves, elite planters, Aztec emperors, wayward sailors, Kongolese kings, infamous pirates and radical revolutionaries – contribute to the creation of this vibrant and dynamic world? A History of the Atlantic World answers these questions by tracing four centuries of interactions among Europeans, Africans and Native Americans, from the first European forays down the west coast of Africa in the fifteenth century, to the turbulent Age of Revolutions at the close of the eighteenth century.
Why study Brazil? This South American nation is the fifth largest in the world in both geography and population. It is now home to the sixth largest economy in the world (surpassing the United Kingdom in 2013). Brazil is also a nation rich in racial, cultural, and linguistic diversity. In many ways, Brazil’s history of slavery, plantation agriculture, immigration, and industrialization offer a compelling distant mirror for understanding the trajectory of U.S. history and the rest of the Americas. In this class we will explore themes of gender, immigration, racial identity, industrialization, modernization, state formation, and dictatorship and democracy.
Mexican Independence, the Constitution of 1824, Santa Anna, revolutions in the 19th and 20th centuries, and contemporary Mexico.
This course is a hybrid survey of Mexican history since conquest, the history of the US-Mexican border, and a view of that history through the lens of drug production, consumption, and influence on Mexican society and US-Mexican relations. In short, the goal of this course is to impart an understanding of drugs as embedded in Mexican social, political, economic, and cultural contexts, providing students with a view from the Mexican side of the border. Alcohol and marijuana will be the focus of the course, but other substances will enter into certain readings throughout the semester. An important theme in this course is to answer the question “What are the origins of today’s War on Drugs?” In addition, the course will endeavour to provide a broader, international context for the development and use of intoxicants and the drug trade, both legal and illegal.
From the time of its incorporation into the Spanish Empire, the land now known as Argentina has held out the promise of fabulous wealth and opportunity. This potential made Argentina the foremost destination of European immigrants to Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, during which time it became one of the wealthiest nations in the world. Many Argentines have anxiously awaited the day when their nation would be included among the ranks of “first world” or “civilized” nations, and they take great pride in their adoption and adaptation of European culture. However, Argentina’s history has not always been so rosy. Political violence, economic catastrophe, and social unrest define the modern Argentine experience as much as economic prosperity, industrialization, and the development of a rich and dynamic culture. From the gauchos (Argentine cowboys) of the vast Pampas to the smoke-filled tango parlors, immigrant tenements, and factories of Buenos Aires, Argentina offers a fascinating case for examining the creation and sustainment of identity and nationality in Latin America.
No description available.
No description available.
No description available.
This course explores, from multiple perspectives, the troubled medieval marriage of religion and violence known as “the crusades.” It offers not only an overview of the traditional, largely military narrative of “numbered” crusades. It also explores the broader view – the general context of “holy war” down to c. 1100; tensions between the ideal and reality of crusading; the social and cultural impact of the crusades, for good and ill; the Muslim perception of the “Franj” as both invaders and neighbors, and the long afterlife of the crusades down through the early modern period. Later sessions of the course then turn to the range of contested historiographical issues that have characterized the study of the crusades in recent years. There are no pre-requisites for the course, though completion of our introductory Western Civilization course (HY 101/105) would be helpful.
Intensive reading, writing, and discussion on special topics in history.
Focuses on the discipline of history itself. Will examine some of the fundamental questions about what history is and why the study of history matters. Subject matter varies by term.
Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course. May be repeated for a maximum of 18 hours.
Major emphasis on the end of the Tokugawa Period (1800-1868), the rise of modernized Japan in the Meiji Period (1868-1912) and the 20th century.
Survey of Chinese history in the Ch'ing Dynasty and the 20th century with emphasis on 19th- and 20th-century events.
This course covers a range of special topics in European history at the advanced undergraduate level. Normally taught as a relatively small course (enrollment of c. 25), it will emphasize close reading of primary sources, class discussion, and research and writing, including an series of extensive formal writing projects (usually a research paper of c. 10-15 pages). Topics will vary by instructor but will include major themes in medieval, early-modern, and modern European civilization. Also note that writing proficiency for this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course. Even if all other requirements are met, failure to meet the History Department’s writing standards will result in a failing grade.
This course covers a range of special topics in American history at the advanced undergraduate level. Normally taught as a relatively small course (enrollment of c. 25), it will emphasize close reading of primary sources, class discussion, and research and writing, including an series of extensive formal writing projects (usually a research paper of c. 10-15 pages). Topics will vary by instructor but will include major themes in American history. Also note that writing proficiency for this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course. Even if all other requirements are met, failure to meet the History Department’s writing standards will result in a failing grade.
This course covers a range of special topics in Latin American, Asian, Middle Eastern, and African history at the advanced undergraduate level. Normally taught as a relatively small course (enrollment of c. 25), it will emphasize close reading of primary sources, class discussion, and research and writing, including an series of extensive formal writing projects (usually a research paper of c. 10-15 pages). Topics will vary by instructor but will include major themes in the world civilizations. Also note that writing proficiency for this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course. Even if all other requirements are met, failure to meet the History Department’s writing standards will result in a failing grade.
Topical survey of major themes in U.S. colonial history, with particular emphasis on Anglo-American developments.
The development of revolutionary sentiment in the North American colonies, the resulting revolution, and the subsequent efforts to establish the new nation. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
Explores the development of slavery and the struggles for emancipation in the Americas 1400-1900. Focusing on how race, gender and region shaped experiences.
An examination of slavery in American popular culture from the 1840s to the present. Topics and media include fiction, autobiography, film and television, advertising, and confederate celebrations.
Examines how Americans thought about and used armed force from 1845 to 1865.Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
Selected topics relating to the development of the U.S., especially domestic affairs and the growth of important institutions.
Covers U.S. participation in two world wars, the Roaring Twenties, and the Great Depression. Government, society, and culture receive attention and analysis.
This course begins with the Age of European Exploration, but the major focus will be on U.S.-Canadian, U.S.-Mexican, and Native American borderlands beginning with the 16th Century. Even though borderlands are frequently located at the peripheries of empires and nations, they play a major—and often overlooked—role in shaping how centers of national power—major cities, state governments, and national capitols—have defined their relation to issues such as territorial expansions, sovereignty, immigration, labor, community formation, and race and ethnicity. As a comparative course, we will address multiple themes, including legal regimes in the borderlands, inter-American power relations, immigration, citizenship, human rights, and sovereignty; intercultural and racial mixture and conflict; nationalism, transnationalism, and internationalism; openings and closing of borders; and the multiple meanings and locations of borderlands, making this course appropriate not only for students of history, but also of anthropology, sociology, and political science.
American intellectual/cultural history to 1860. Includes changing ideas about society, politics, morality, science, nature, religion, gender and race. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
Examines the experiences of women from mid-nineteenth century to present with special attention to ideologies about women's roles and effects of region, race, class and ethnicity.
History of the Spanish advance into the present-day borders of the U.S., explaining how Spain fought and finally succumbed to the more dynamic and aggressive French and English.
This course offers students extensive training in research methods and writing. It will normally culminate in a 15 page research paper based on primary source materials, as well as an oral presentation. Instructors may also choose to offer a range of equivalent alternatives at their discretion. In all events the course will offer students a rewarding opportunity to practice the craft of historical research. A grade of C or higher is required for credit in the major, and writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
Explores contact between Native Americans and Europeans in the early Americas through attention to gender, stressing the diversity of Native life ways.
Foundations of the modern world in barbarian Europe: retreat into the countryside and private government, recovery of public institutions, money economy, and cultural vitality.
Study of intellectual movements associated with the Renaissance, including readings in Machiavelli's Prince, More's Utopia, and other humanist writings; social life, economy, religion, politics, and statecraft. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
History of the separation of the Catholic and Protestant churches from the ideal of the universal Christian church and late medieval religious practice. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
The Enlightenment of Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Franklin, Hume, Goethe, and Kant, whose writings exalted individual reason, tolerance, liberalism, science, and public service and set the stage for the French Revolution.
This course surveys women's lives in Europe from 1750 to the present. Themes explored include: identity construction, power relationships, domesticity, class, war, consumerism and sexuality.
This course examines the political, religious, intellectual, military, cultural and social history of German speaking central Europe from the Eve of the Protestant Reformation to the eve of the French Revolution. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
Though it is often believed to begin with Charles Darwin, Evolutionary Theory has a history dating back to the seventeenth century. In this course we will focus on this history from those early beginnings century through modern genetics and epigenetics. Along with Charles Darwin himself, we will explore the contributions of other well-known scientists, such as Lamarck, Charles Lyell, T. H. Huxley, Gregor Mendel, and T. H. Morgan. Additionally, we will familiarize ourselves with the ideas of less well known but important individuals whose theories are crucial for understanding the development of evolutionary theory and the shaping of Darwin’s legacy. Throughout the course, we will also examine their contributions in specific historical contexts, pausing to pay particular attention to social responses to the developing theory of Darwinism. Ultimately, we will leave with a fuller understanding of and a greater appreciation for what we now term “evolutionary theory.” As a “W” course, writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade. In other words, no matter how well you do in other aspects of the course, you must write with the skill normally required of upper level students in History to pass. Written assignments will require coherent, logical, and carefully edited prose. Students will be required to demonstrate higher-level critical thinking skills.
A history of exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries, when European nations expanded by sea voyages and conquest, settling in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.
Chronological survey of diplomatic, economic, and cultural relations, with emphasis on the 20th century. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
Traces the evolution of Caribbean and Central American nations from the first European settlements to the present.
Introduction to the ways in which human beings have organized and used armed force over the course of recorded history.
This course examines developments in European warfare and diplomatic practice in the late medieval and early modern periods. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
This course examines the complex interrelationships between religion and armed conflict in the Western tradition from the ancient world into modern times. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
This course explores the background, events, and consequences of the Thirty Years’ War that raged in the center of Europe from 1618 to 1648. We will examine not only the history of the war itself, but also the multiple controversies that continue to divide scholars over the causes, nature, and significance of the conflict. Readings will include both primary and secondary sources.
Development of an early modern state: establishment of a strong central monarchy, religious crises from the Reformation to the Puritan movement, and exuberance and excess of an expanding society. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
How Englishmen of the 17th century worked out the great questions of their day: Was liberty compatible with strong government? Could English elites share power without destroying it? What did God want for England? Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
From the Hanoverian Succession in 1714 to victory at Waterloo in 1815: political development, the Agrarian and Industrial Revolutions, John Wesley, Samuel Johnson, and an apparently endless succession of wars. Writing proficiency within this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.
Britain at her apogee: possessor of the empire on which the sun never set, world economic leader, nation of Peel and Palmerston, Gladstone and Disraeli, Dickens and Trollope, Tennyson and Browning, Turner and Constable.
Independent research and writing to produce a senior honors thesis in history.
History 499 is the writing portion of the History honors thesis course sequence. Students taking HY 499 will have completed HY 498, Honors Thesis I, in which they will have selected and researched a topic in conjunction with their advising professor. Individual requirements may vary, but all honors theses will be based on original primary source research, and typically are about fifty pages/fourteen thousand words in length. The thesis will demonstrate advanced writing and research ability for the undergraduate level. Per the University designation for Writing courses, “Writing proficiency for this discipline is required for a passing grade in this course.” Even if all other requirements are met, failure to meet the History Department’s writing standards will result in a failing grade. In order to complete the course, two professors other than the professor of record must read and approve the final thesis.